Pathogen Screening for Possible Causes of Meningitis Encephalitis in Wild Carnivores From Saxony-Anhalt

The formation of free radicals during physical activity depends on the type, intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise, as well as the individual antioxidant potential (Tofas et al., 2020). Very intense physical training can contribute to oxidative stress even in professional athletes (Tofas et al., 2020). Among type 2 diabetes patients, a positive correlation was observed between the percentage of total body fat and the total oxidant status [TOS/total oxidant capacity ] (Picu et al., 2017). A positive correlation was also revealed between TOS/TOC and glycated hemoglobin concentrations, as well as between TOS/TOC and glycemic levels (Picu et al., 2017). Of note, total antioxidant status/total antioxidant capacity (TAS/TAC), measuring plasma antioxidant capacity, represents an alternative marker reflecting the redox state in the body in a more effective manner than the evaluation of a single circulating antioxidant . Inflammation in meninges and/or brain is regularly noticed in red foxes and other wild carnivores during rabies control programs.

The play responds to several levels of oppression under the Third Reich’s policies, not just the horrible conditions and ritualized violence in Ravensbrück, and this context is vital for understanding the references in the script and the motivations of the performers. The original lyrics of ‘Warszawianka’ glorify martyred soldiers, claiming that a soldier would earn glory if they died fighting for Polish independence. However, Kopijowska removed the overly nationalistic Romantic-era ideology and softened the angry and vengeful tone of the original song. The Polish Eagle’s call to rise and fight for independence is a blatantly nationalistic symbol and would have been censored, prompting Kopijowska to change the Soldier’s opening lines to describe being awoken by the Bethlehem Star.

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Samples were considered positive if the cycle threshold was less than or equal to 40. Results considered positive were repeated individually using a new sample from the individual animal for confirmation. In the following, these positive samples are referred to as infection as described in Pschyrembel even if there was no histomorphological correlate in the examined brain sections. Two individually confirmed negative brain samples and RNase-free water were used as no template control in each individual (RT-)qPCR run.

Pathogen Screening for Possible Causes of Meningitis/Encephalitis in Wild Carnivores From Saxony-Anhalt

Despite negative rabies virus results, the etiologies of these cases remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide an overview of the occurrence of pathogens that may cause diseases in the brains of wild carnivores and pose a risk to humans and other animals. In addition to RABV and canine distemper virus , a variety of pathogens, including members of Flaviviridae, Bornaviridae, Herpesviridae, Circoviridae, as well as bacteria and parasites can also cause brain lesions. Here, we applied similar methods to specifically detect suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), West Nile virus , Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1), canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), fox circovirus , and Neospora caninum (N. caninum). Further, bacteriogical examination for the existence of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and immunohistochemistry of selected cases to detect Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antigen were performed. Of all pathogens studied, CDV was found most frequently (31.05%), followed by FoxCV (6.80%), CPV-2 (6.41%), T.

In our study, we wanted to present the risk that diabetics faced during single maximal effort until exhaustion, which is usually applied to determine the effort capability of athletes who start their training cycles. Physical training in which repeated physical efforts of a certain VO2max intensity are implemented is a form of hormesis against which the body mobilizes and activates many systems and metabolic reactions that exert a positive impact on the body. Here, we report data on the aerobic capacity and changes in the oxidant-antioxidant balance during a maximum-intensity exercise in T1DM patients compared with healthy participants. Significant differences were determined for most measured physiological indices. Specifically, patients with T1DM had significantly lower levels of aerobic capacity than healthy participants of a similar age and BMI. A further novel finding is that the T1DM group was characterized by significantly higher TOS/TOC levels both before and after the maximum-intensity test; also, intra-group comparisons were significant.

Our first objective was to judge the potential impact of invasive species, as raccoons, in particular, outnumber the ubiquitous red fox in certain regions of Germany, including Saxony-Anhalt. In the period 2015–2017 alone, about 19,500 red foxes and 26,100 raccoons were shot per year in Saxony-Anhalt . Thus, these two carnivore species also represent the majority of animals sent in for rabies-testing. Other submitted animals are usually a few individual animals, such as raccoon dogs, martens of different species, and badgers .

The treadmill test performed until exhaustion showed that aerobic capacity was significantly lower in young T1DM patients with glycemic control than in young healthy individuals. The treadmill test turned out a considerable oxidative and nitrosative stress among diabetics, which could have caused increased inflammation in this group as compared with healthy participants’ response to such effort. A large increase in VEGF levels in diabetics after exercise until exhaustion may put them at risk owing to the activation of retinopathy. About 6% of all examined animals in our study were positive for CPV-2-DNA, raccoons were significantly higher with 13.73%.

This phenomenon is referred to as oxidative stress (Frijhoff et al., 2015; Ighodaro, 2018). Its occurrence in diabetes results from an increase in the level of free radicals, as well as disturbances in the activity of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the concentration of low-molecular-weight antioxidants . © 2022 Höche, House, Heinrich, Schliephake, Albrecht, Pfeffer and Ellenberger. We are grateful to the Hunters’ Association of the State of Saxony-Anhalt for providing the sample material.

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‘Wester Platte’ refers to when the Polish army defended the Gdańsk harbor station, which was a strategic location for the ammunition supply of the Polish military. The defense was against the German siege, 1–7 September 1939, that lasted several days longer than expected. ‘Kutno’ refers to the Battle of the Bzura, from 2–9 September 1939. This battle was significant because, while the army in Poznań had to surrender, the soldiers were able to delay the attack on Warsaw. Kopijowska also referenced the Siege of Warsaw in 8–28 September 1939.


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Nitrosative stress indicators (3-nitrotyrosine and eNOS-3) exhibited significantly higher levels in the T1DM group as compared with the control group both before and after the exercise. The change in these indicators did not differ between the groups. VEGF level was similar both before and after the exercise in the studied groups . The mean concentration of TOS/TOC before and after the exercise test was significantly higher in the T1DM group as compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.001).

Ritual Framework in the Szopka Polska

After the interlude, the Three Kings join the Shepherds and discuss their excitement through selected verses of the carol ‘Mędrcy świata, monarchowie’ [‘Wise men of the world, monarchs’]. The Three Kings proclaim that their fear of Herod’s evil plots will not deter them from visiting the manger, the only mention of Herod in this play. The Three Kings only have a small role, but they acknowledge their fears through this line, possibly demonstrating a method for coping with the frightening camp environment.

  • Therefore, CDV may have been the agent that paved the way for infection with other pathogens or may have progressed the disease.
  • The combination of all three viruses occurred in a red fox (1/46; 2.17%).
  • ŁT, BM, MTM, and WP wrote the sections of the manuscript.
  • Its occurrence in diabetes results from an increase in the level of free radicals, as well as disturbances in the activity of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the concentration of low-molecular-weight antioxidants .

Therefore, we wanted to investigate which etiologies could cause the inflammatory processes in the central nervous system in all animals with meningitis and/or encephalitis, especially if RABV and CDV could not be detected. In Saxony-Anhalt little is known about the occurrence and outcome of any encephalitis-causing pathogens in the population of wild carnivores. In addition, we wanted to identify especially pathogens that have a zoonotic potential and therefore can be a threat to humans, domestic and zoo animals, or the wildlife population. If specific diseases occurred, an attempt was made to identify local epidemiological reservoirs of pathogens based on the distribution of diseases in the wildlife population studied. Potential transmission pathways and/or sources of infection should be considered and discussed on the basis of the results.

1. Study Area

The authors acknowledge support from the German Research Foundation and Universität Leipzig within the program of Open Access Publishing. Gondii, and nematode larvae have also been found in wild carnivores. This would not only allow a more accurate assessment of the risk posed by infected wild carnivores but also estimate potential contamination of the surrounding environment. The diagnostic value of histopathology alone is limited. Thus, changes in the adjacent tissue might be overseen. This is also true for the selection of certain brain areas.

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In our research, nutritional analysis in both groups showed no deficiencies in terms of energy or quality, including antioxidant vitamins, in the consumed food products. This could not have had impact on the pre-exercise plasma antioxidant concentration in the participants, monitored as TAS/TAC. As physical activity is an integral element of T1DM therapy (Farinha et al., 2018), it is necessary to understand the impact of exercise on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in affected individuals, as well as the risk-benefit ratio. The baseline (pre-exercise) and post-exercise TOS/TOC values were significantly higher in the T1DM group than among the controls. In a long-term perspective study, regular physical activity in the form of endurance training had a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system function, lipid profile, and carbohydrate metabolism. It also helped maintain a stable energy balance and normalize body mass in both healthy individuals and T1DM patients (Absil et al., 2019).

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Advances in treatment options, as well as modern monitoring methods and improved markers of glycemia have resulted in more effective glycemic control. Despite this, patients with diabetes may develop vascular complications, such as retinopathy. A significant role in its occurrence is played by growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor , growth hormone, and transforming growth factor β. VEGF production is enhanced in diabetic retinopathy, probably in response to hypoxia (Keenan et al., 2007). There are a number of substances that stimulate VEGF secretion; these include interleukins, growth factors, hormones, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species (Ihnat et al., 2007).

One explanation may be that baseline stress values are related with glucose markers only within periods longer than 10 days and/or correlate with more severe hyperglycemia and/or stress response is more sensitive to current glucose control. We believe that the greater TOS/TOC percentage variation in the control xcritical official site group could be due to the fact that the exercise test in this group lasted longer than in the T1DM group. The physical effort performed by healthy men during the exercise test resulted in a greater production of free radicals. This could have caused a greater lipid peroxidation, which was measured by TOS/TOC.

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The two female puppets represent suffering in the camp, but the Soldier represents the Polish military’s resistance. Berezowska painted the Soldier in uniform, saluting the Holy Family . Kopijowska’s most significant adaptation to the szopka medium is her inclusion of multiple speaking roles for female characters, drawing strength from domestic representations of motherhood and childhood. The gender of the puppeteers could be a consideration as to why more female characters were included, such as the Polish Mother and female Häftling.

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